How English teachers use the Question Formulation Technique to support students as they pursue deeper understanding of texts and develop their critical thinking.
By Chris Orchard
Teaching English is more than drilling students in the details of punctuation, pronouns and parallel structure, though such things are important. It’s more than lecturing about poetry and prose, Pride and Prejudice and Pericles – also worthy tasks.
It’s about nurturing independent thinkers who are able to engage critically with words, texts, and the world around them.
It’s why the Common Core English Language Arts standards emphasize not only the ability to “ask relevant questions” in pursuit of understanding texts, but to go even deeper, to “question an author’s or speaker’s assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning.”
Many English teachers no doubt harbor a more personal goal: to help spark a love of books and reading that will enrich students for the rest of their lives.
It’s an area where educators and authors are on the same page.
Madeleine L’Engle, who wrote the popular A Wrinkle in Time, once said, “I believe that good questions are more important than answers, and the best children’s books ask questions, and make the reader ask questions. And every new question is going to disturb someone’s universe.”
Scott Westerfeld, another writer of young-adult fiction, put it this way: “Good books make you ask questions.” (“Bad readers,” he added, “want everything answered.”)
English teachers have had success using the Question Formulation Technique (QFT) to connect these dots – between literature and literacy, questions, curriculum standards, and the sense of wonder and curiosity that make books beloved companions.
Take 12th-grade students in Jenifer Lopez’s English class in California. They used the epic poem, Beowulf, as the basis for asking questions: “How has Beowulf become a warrior?” “Why does the epic poem make biblical references?” “Does Grendel deserve to go to hell?”
Much success! QFT has taking our reading, analysis, and discussions to another level! Student engagement at its best! 🤗👍🏼📚 pic.twitter.com/yF96G1y5lO
— Jennifer Lopez (@_mrsJLOchs) October 25, 2017
In Oxnard, California, Jennifer Brickey’s high school students engaged with a play by Shakespeare. To help them analyze Romeo and Juliet, Brickey used as a Question Focus (QFocus) Aristotle’s definition of tragedy:
Tragedy depicts the downfall of a basically good person through some fatal error or misjudgment, producing suffering and insight on the part of the protagonist and arousing pity and fear on the part of the audience.
Here were some of the students’ questions: “What is the downfall of a good person?” “What is the protagonist?” “What is arousing?”
Aristotle's definition of tragedy as applied to Romeo and Juliet. Ss said they feel confident and smart. #QFT success @RightQuestion pic.twitter.com/MWUqQY3BG3
— Jennifer Brickey (@Mrs_Brickey) October 31, 2017
Of course, Romeo and Juliet is a play taught in classrooms around the world. If you’re ever looking for a fun Romeo and Juliet QFocus, Verity Olliff suggested this amusing cartoon, which she used to lead a discussion about gender norms:
I saw this last year and my students discussed gender norms with it pic.twitter.com/mGhw3A49EP
— Verity O (@MsVOlliff) October 28, 2017
In Ontario, Sandra Snooks used the QFT as a pre-reading activity. She provided a two-sentence summary of The First Stone, by Don Aker. It’s about an angry young man (Reef) whose habit of throwing stones from a bridge onto the highway puts a 17-year-old (Leeza) into the hospital. Their lives become intertwined when Reef’s mandatory community service mistakenly sends him to the same hospital.
Having not yet read the book, Snooks’s students prepared insightful questions to help guide them with the task: “How did throwing a rock off a bridge bring their lives together?” “Does Reef always act out when he’s angry?” “Did Reef and Leeza get closure?”
#QFT in #ENG2P ! The #QFocus was a 2 sentence summary of the book they're getting ready to read. #PreReading #thinking #Ask pic.twitter.com/XAw7DjluoB
— Sandra Snooks (@TeacherSnooks) November 7, 2017
Twitter user @YaguiarYornell, an English teacher from Oceanside High School in New York, and her colleague Erin Gilrein (@EGilrein) presented her students with a quotation from Plato: “The measure of a man is what he does with power.”
Here were some of the questions: “What do they mean by measure?” “How much power do they actually have?” “Who is Plato?”
Thanks @EGilrein for showing us the QFT strategy. The kids rocked it! @DrZiro pic.twitter.com/wWjZuaBQ6j
— Yornell (@YaguiarYornell) November 29, 2017
Finally, Mr. Z, an English teacher in California, developed a thoughtful exercise about Nathaniel Hawthrone’s The Scarlet Letter. Using the QFT, he helped his class develop a key question they wanted to answer. Their question “asks under what circumstances an individual can have more power or impact than their community,” Mr. Z explained on Twitter. His students then looked for real-life examples and compared them to characters in The Scarlet Letter.
They made comparisons to Steve Jobs, Emma Watson, Jackie Robinson, Drake, and many others. In fact, the students Tweeted their responses as part of the project.
Our class question for Scarlet Letter asks under what circumstances an individual can have more power or impact than their community. Today we connected the Scarlet Letter characters to real-life individuals. #zapfv #qft #stevejobs #scarletletter pic.twitter.com/TznH37YhtF
— Mr. Z (@mrz306) December 1, 2017
I juxtaposed Emma Watson with Hester because they both believe in being yourself and even though sometimes these ideas are seen as extreme, they continue to inspire society. #zapfv #emmawatson #scarletletter pic.twitter.com/uuHKGsvCTW
— brooklynzapfv (@brooklynzapfv1) December 3, 2017
Jackie Robinson was discrimnated throughout his life and being drafted to the MLB was no diffferent for him. Besides this, he was able to excel in his field. #zapfv #qft #scarletletter #jackierobinson pic.twitter.com/Fw5aUrPIPL
— Johnny Nguyen (@newiner89) December 1, 2017
Drake doesn’t care how he’s perceived by others. He created the term ‘YOLO’ in his song “Motto” which is his justification for acting questionably. Like Hester, he will not cave into criticism, rather he reminds us that “We hea for a good time, not a long time,” so fugetaboutit. pic.twitter.com/ETtHklpCCx
— phiona (@AP3phi) December 1, 2017
These are just some of the creative ways English teachers are using the QFT to push analysis of text, critical thinking and the joys of reading.
We love hearing about this work, and we occasionally post examples like these. If you’re interested, here are some others:
- STEM lessons: Farming on Volcanoes, Flint’s Water Crisis, and Excreting Isopods
- Social studies lessons (mostly): Dinosaur-Killing Aliens, Camshafts, and Kentucky State Legislators
- Lessons for elementary school students: Edible Packing Material, Smelly Barrels, and Regurgitated Owl Food
Keep the Tweets coming! You can find us at @RightQuestion and use #QFT, the abbreviation for Question Formulation Technique. Also, visit us at rightquestion.org and join our Educator Network of more than 30,000 educators around the world.